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Public heath, a governing issue

Public health is a wide field. Impact of trending political and economic issues and relation between poverty and globalization is beyond the scope of this paper. The influence of noncommunicable diseases on developing countries is not sufficiently foregrounded well. Noncommunicable diseases are estimated to cause death of people twice as compared to communicable diseases in 2015 as claimed by a report. The most supreme priority is reducing the level of communicable diseases all over the world.

Communicable disease is the one that can be spread by direct contact and by various body fluids. It can be airborne too so one the most dreadful disease 21st century is facing is COVID-19. It was declared as the public health emergency of the international concern by world health organization (WHO) on 30 January 2020. Achievement of justifiable results in managing and controlling covid-19 is related to the proper diagnosis, prevention and treatment as well as overall health promotion with patient   counseling. Minimizing the economic effect of virus to counter the spread of misinformation throughout is the primary goal. The international response toward covid-19 is more obvious as compare to outbreak of SARS in previous decades. (report on comission and intelluctual property right and public health, 2006)\

History

Corona virus disaster is leading toward some positive example of global Level Corporation but it is also revealing some fault trends including alarming plan of actions. However the federal government is working jointly with local and   territorial   partners to respond to this situation. Activity of Covid 19 is different is various countries. Mostly it affects the people above 65 years of age and people suffering from various underlying diseases. The duration and severity of virus may vary depending on the public health response. (2020)


Health care professionals like doctors, nurses are on the front line of providing care. During this pandemic attack of covid-19, pharmacist are the most trusted and accessible resource available for the patients. they can educate general public  on most preventive measures such as optimal hand hygiene, staying home, maintain social distancing  almost  3 feet, Pharmacist can also provide home care for patients with suspected corona virus infection presented with  mild symptoms and contact management. Advice on the use of mask in the community during home care and in the health care settings in the contact of novel coronavirus is recommended by pharmacists.

Implementation of element of standard precautions by health care professional community includes following points that is their incredible role. • Hand hygiene • respiratory hygiene • PPE  according to the risk • safe injection practices, sharp management and injury prevention • safe handling, cleaning, and disinfection of patient care equipments • environmental cleaning • waste management

 

Literature review of covid-19

This is the seventh known coronavirus to infect humans.  By looking into structure it has series of proteins spikes on its surface that appears like a crown, and it has low pathogenicity. There are four structural proteins which are similar to other corona viruses the S, E,M and the N protein. S stands for spike, E stands for envelops, M stand for membrane and the N stand for nuclear capsid. Spike is responsible for attachment of virus to the host cells. This protein has 20 times greater affinity to bind with receptors then the SARS virus. That’s the reason why it

spread more easily. E protein is found to be smallest of the major structural protein of the viral spread more easily. E protein is found to be smallest of the major structural protein of the viral envelope. It is responsible for release of virus from the host cells. Initially it can get into upper respiratory tract and that’s why you get the symptoms like common cold, stuffy nose , headache and fever. With the passage of time it get ale to move further into lower respiratory tract where viral application occurs and lung collision can occur immediately.

Early Stages

Epidemiology, In December 2019 outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause occurred in city of china Wuhan. The WHO nominated it as SARS-CoV-2 to characterized the linkage of the virus with any geographic location and relate it to the disease symptomatology. Although this outbreak is likely to originate from zoonotic origin but researchers also proved its human to human transmission. Corona was declared as pandemic on 11 march, 2020 due to worldwide expansion of algorithm.

Genetic similarities have been found to study between SARS outbreak in 2002 and covid-19. The patient of covid-19 is presented with clinical symptoms of fever, dyspnea, dry cough, and radiological findings showed bilateral lung glassy opacities. (nigham kaka, 2020) Currently there is no specific vaccination is recommended by WHO (world health organization) but numbers of drugs having antiviral effects (lopinavir, ritonavir) antimalarial effects (hydroxychloroquine) and various immune modulating agents are of great interest for repurposing covid-19 treatment. Data available for these agents are limited to in-vitro studies


 Precautions

Precautions, washing hand for 40-60 seconds is recommended by IPC. Patient having coughed sneezing and fever should be kept at distance of 1m away from other person. Consider having masks and tissues available for patients in all area.covid-19 is spread by droplets .When an infected person cough and sneezes so pharmacist must adopt policies and procedures to ensure routine cleaning of pharmacy specially commonly touch surfaces and items. Areas for prescription drop-off and pick-up should be disinfected as soon as possible. Since the outbreak started in china and lockdown were imposed, supply from manufacturing facilities has reduced. India has also restricted the export of 26 API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) which represent 10% of export facility so it’s the role of industrial pharmacist to maintain the supply of OTC (over the counter) medicines as well as various antibiotics used for common illness.

 

Clinical presentation of covid-19, overall percentage of different symptoms are listed as,

 Pyrexia in 85% of the patients  66.7% are seen with dry cough  Dyspnea in 18.6% of patients  Sore throat is present in 13.9% of patients  Nasal congestion is reported in 4.8% of cases  Gastrointestinal cases problems. (Pramath Kakodkar, 2020)

Multiple courses of covid-19 need optimization. The major obstruction in developmental courses is conduction of misinformation due to social media. This literature review has basic goals of providing most accurate acquisition about covid-19 . Role of healthcare professionals, they are working day and night to update the knowledge of other health care professionals .  The Royal Pharmaceuticals made some articles regarding Covid-19 telling the details of every minor conformational.

Conclusion.

Out of hundred corona viruses that circulates in animals, only seven of them effects human and four provides symptoms related to common cold and flu. Regarding the past history of 20 years, three times corona viruses jumped into human beings to cause life threatening conditions. The rapid spread of this virus has grabbed much of the world attention.Therefore The crisis has yet to play its game but it will occur globally and medical science working on the front line of saving this world from this disaster. (Treacy, 2020)

Although it was first detected in Wuhan but now almost 179 countries across the world are facing this dreadful pandemic. Health officials of the WHO and other professionals are working day and night to overcome the spread of novel corona . As Such  social distancing, impeding travel restriction, and by self-quarantine.Based on all above discussion. The aspects of corona virus seems to have moderate pathogenicity . Furthermore biological and epidemiological data is required for risk assessment and response . It would leads toward better prevention of covid-10 throughout the world. The vaccines and anti-corona viral drugs are still under processing in laboratories of United States as well as in china. Its outbreak can only be control by interrupting the transmission from human to human. Virus eradication will be possible by joint effort of whole community .As a result education and strength their confidence on government policies is important factor to implement.

 

 

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